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349 Miscellaneous Hazardous Materials
(Hazard Class 9)

349.1 Definition

A miscellaneous hazardous material is a substance or article that presents a hazard during transportation, but does not meet the definition of any other hazard class. Examples of miscellaneous hazardous materials (not all of which are mailable) include solid dry ice, lithium batteries, magnetized materials, elevated temperature substances, environmentally hazardous substances, life-saving appliances (i.e., automobile air–bags, self-inflating life vests), and asbestos. Miscellaneous hazardous materials include:

  1. Any material that has an anesthetic, noxious, or other similar property that could cause extreme annoyance or discomfort to a flight crew member.
  2. Any elevated temperature material, hazardous substance, hazardous waste (other than Division 6.2 medical waste), or marine pollutant.
349.11 Lithium Battery — Classifications:
  1. Lithium-ion cell or battery means a rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery in which the positive and negative electrodes are both lithium compounds constructed with no metallic lithium in either electrode. These batteries are also referred to as secondary or rechargeable lithium cells or batteries, and are typically used in cell phones and laptop computers.
  2. Lithium-ion polymer cell or battery means a rechargeable cell or battery that uses lithium-ion chemistries and is regulated as a lithium-ion cell or battery.
  3. Lithium metal cell or battery means an electrochemical cell or battery utilizing lithium metal or lithium alloys as the anode. The lithium content of a lithium metal or lithium alloy cell or battery is measured when the cell or battery is in an undischarged state. The lithium content of a lithium metal or lithium alloy battery is the sum of the grams of lithium content contained in the component cells of the battery. These batteries are also referred to as primary or nonrechargeable lithium cells or batteries, and are often used in consumer products such as cameras and flashlights.
  4. Button cell battery means a small single cell round battery with the overall height less than the diameter. Button cells are used to power small portable electronic devices such as wrist watches, pocket calculators, and hearing aids, and are often installed in electronic devices as auxiliary power sources. For the purposes of mailability as button cell batteries, lithium metal batteries must contain no more than 0.3 gram of lithium content and lithium-ion batteries must be 2.7 watt-hours or less.
  5. Lithium cell means a single encased electrochemical unit with a single positive electrode (anode) and single negative electrode (cathode), which exhibits a voltage differential across its terminals. For the purpose of mailability, marking, and documentation requirements, a single cell lithium battery is classified as a lithium cell.
  6. Lithium battery means one or more lithium cells which are electrically connected together by a permanent means, including case, terminals, and markings.
349.12 Lithium Battery — Definitions
  1. Equipment means the device or apparatus for which the lithium cells or batteries will provide electrical power for its operation.
  2. Short circuit means a direct connection between positive and negative terminals of a cell or battery that provides an abnormally low resistance path for current flow.
  3. Watt-hour (Wh) means a unit of energy equivalent to one watt (1 W) of work acting for one hour (1 h) of time. The watt-hour rating of a lithium-ion cell or battery is determined by multiplying the rated capacity of a cell or battery in ampere-hours, by its nominal voltage. Therefore, watt-hour (Wh) = ampere-hour (Ah) x volts (V).

349.2 Mailability

  1. International Mail. All miscellaneous hazardous materials are prohibited, except for certain magnetized materials as permitted in 349.242a and IMM 136.1g, and small consumer-type lithium batteries (installed in the equipment they operate) as permitted in 622.5 and IMM 135.6.
  2. Domestic Mail. A miscellaneous hazardous material that can qualify as a mailable air-eligible consumer commodity material (ID8000) when intended for air transportation, or an ORM-D material when intended for ground transportation, is permitted for domestic mail, subject to the applicable 49 CFR requirements. Only UN3077, UN3082, UN3175, UN3334, and UN3335 Class 9 materials are mailable by air transportation; mailpieces including eligible quantities of these materials must be marked with the proper shipping name “Consumer Commodity.” Additionally, lithium batteries, dry ice, and magnetized materials are permitted within the specific limits provided in 349.221, 349.222, 349.23, and 349.24.
349.21 Nonmailable Class 9 Materials

The following materials are prohibited:

  1. All Class 9 materials that cannot qualify as a consumer commodity material (or an ORM-D material, for surface transportation only) except dry ice, lithium batteries, and magnetized materials.
  2. All magnetized materials that have a measurable magnetic field strength greater than 0.00525 gauss at 15 feet.
  3. For air transportation, all magnetized materials that can cause a compass deviation at a distance of 7 feet or more.
  4. In domestic mail via air transportation, dry ice in quantities exceeding 5 pounds per mailpiece.
  5. All lithium batteries in international mail, unless they are within the specified limits and only when properly installed in the equipment they operate.
  6. All lithium metal batteries in domestic air transportation, unless they are within the specified limits and only when properly installed in, or packed with, the equipment they are intended to operate.
349.22 Mailable Class 9 Materials
349.221 Lithium Metal (Nonrechargeable) Cells and Batteries — Domestic

For domestic mailings only, small consumer-type lithium metal cells or batteries (also called primary lithium cells or batteries) like those used to power cameras and flashlights are mailable domestically under the following conditions. See 622 or IMM 136 when mailing batteries internationally or to APO/FPO/DPO destinations.

  1. General. The following restrictions apply to the mailability of all lithium metal (or lithium alloy) cells and batteries:
    1. Each cell must contain no more than 1.0 gram (g) of lithium content per cell.
    2. Each battery must contain no more than 2.0 g aggregate lithium content per battery.
    3. Each cell or battery must meet the requirements of each test in the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria, part III, and subsection 38.3 as referenced in DOT’s hazardous materials regulation at 49 CFR 171.7.
    4. All outer packages must have a complete delivery and return address.
    5. All packaging must meet all applicable requirements specified in 49 CFR 173.185.
    6. Except for mailpieces containing button cell batteries installed in equipment (including circuit boards), or no more than 4 lithium metal cells or 2 lithium metal batteries installed in the equipment they operate, mailpieces containing lithium metal batteries must bear markings that indicate that the package contains lithium metal cells or batteries; that the package is to be handled with care and that a flammable hazard exists if the package is damaged; that special procedures must be followed in the event the package is damaged, to include inspection and repacking, if necessary; and a telephone number for additional information. Mailers may use a DOT lithium battery handling label, in domestic air or surface transportation, to meet these marking requirements provided all required elements are included.
    7. Except for mailpieces containing button cell batteries installed in equipment (including circuit boards), or no more than 4 lithium metal cells or 2 lithium metal batteries installed in the equipment they operate, mailpieces containing lithium metal batteries must also be accompanied by a document that indicates that the package contains lithium metal cells or batteries; an indication that the package is to be handled with care and that a flammable hazard exists if the package is damaged; an indication that special procedures must be followed in the event the package is damaged, to include inspection and repacking, if necessary; and a telephone number for additional information.
  2. Installed in Equipment. The following additional restrictions apply to the mailing of lithium metal cells or batteries properly installed in the equipment they operate:
    1. The batteries installed in the equipment must be protected from damage and short circuit.
    2. The equipment must be equipped with an effective means of preventing it from being inadvertently turned on or activated.
    3. The equipment must be cushioned to prevent movement or damage and be contained in a strong enough sealed package to prevent crushing of the package or exposure of the contents during normal handling in the mail.
    4. For lithium metal cells and batteries containing no more than 0.3 gram of lithium content, no mailpiece may exceed 2.5 kilograms (5.5 pounds). There is no maximum number of cells or batteries per mailpiece.
    5. For lithium metal cells containing more than 0.3 gram but no more than 1.0 gram of lithium content, and batteries containing more than 0.3 gram but no more than 2.0 grams of lithium content, no mailpiece may exceed 5 kilograms (11 pounds). Each mailpiece may contain a maximum of 8 cells or 2 batteries, with no more than 1.0 gram of lithium content per cell or 2.0 grams of lithium content per battery.
    6. Mailpieces are not required to bear markings or labels identifying the contents as lithium batteries. Mailers may optionally use a DOT-approved lithium battery handling label, in domestic air or surface transportation.
  3. Mailed With Equipment. The following additional restrictions apply to the mailing of lithium metal cells or batteries shipped with (but not installed in) the device or equipment being mailed:
    1. The shipment cannot contain more batteries than the number needed to operate the device.
    2. The lithium metal cells and batteries must be packaged separately and cushioned to prevent movement or damage.
    3. The shipment must be contained in a strong enough sealed package to prevent crushing of the package or exposure of the contents during normal handling in the mail.
    4. For lithium metal cells and batteries containing no more than 0.3 gram of lithium content, no mailpiece may exceed 2.5 kilograms (5.5 pounds). There is no maximum number of cells or batteries per mailpiece.
    5. For lithium metal cells containing more than 0.3 gram but no more than 1.0 gram of lithium content, and batteries containing more than 0.3 gram but no more than 2.0 grams of lithium content, no mailpiece may exceed 5 kilograms (11 pounds). Each mailpiece may contain a maximum of 8 cells or 2 batteries, with no more than 1.0 gram of lithium content per cell or 2.0 grams of lithium content per battery.
    6. Mailpieces must be marked and be accompanied by shipping documentation as described in 349.221a6 and 349.221a7.
  4. Mailed Without Equipment. The following additional restrictions apply to the mailing of lithium metal cells or batteries without equipment (individual batteries):
    1. The lithium metal cells and batteries must be mailed in “the originally sealed packaging.”
    2. The sealed packages of batteries must be separated and cushioned to prevent short circuit, movement, or damage.
    3. The shipment must be contained in a strong enough sealed package to prevent crushing of the package or exposure of the contents during normal handling in the mail.
    4. Mailpieces must be sent by surface transportation only.
    5. In addition to the marking and shipping documentation requirements described in 349.221a6 and 349.221a7, the outside of the package must be marked on the address side “Surface Mail Only, Primary Lithium Batteries — Forbidden for Transportation Aboard Passenger Aircraft” or “Surface Mail Only, Lithium Metal Batteries — Forbidden for Transportation Aboard Passenger Aircraft.”
    6. The mailpiece must not exceed 5 pounds.
349.222 Lithium-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries — Domestic

Small consumer-type lithium-ion cells and batteries (also called secondary lithium cells or batteries) like those used to power cell phones and laptop computers are only mailable domestically under the following conditions. See 622 or IMM 135.6 when mailing batteries internationally or to and from APO/FPO/DPO destinations.

  1. General. The following additional restrictions apply to the mailability of all secondary lithium-ion or lithium polymer cells and batteries:
    1. The watt-hour rating must not exceed 20 Wh per cell.
    2. The watt-hour rating must not exceed 100 Wh per battery.
    3. Each cell or battery must meet the requirements of each test in the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria, part III, and subsection 38.3 as referenced in DOT’s hazardous materials regulation at 49 CFR 171.7.
    4. All outer packages must have a complete delivery and return address.
    5. All packaging must meet all applicable requirements specified in 49 CFR 173.185.
    6. Except for mailpieces containing button cell batteries installed in equipment (including circuit boards), or no more than 4 lithium-ion cells or 2 lithium-ion batteries installed in the equipment they operate, mailpieces containing lithium-ion batteries must bear markings that indicate that the package contains lithium-ion cells or batteries; that the package is to be handled with care and that a flammable hazard exists if the package is damaged; that special procedures must be followed in the event the package is damaged, to include inspection and repacking, if necessary; and a telephone number for additional information. Mailers may use a DOT-approved lithium battery handling label, in domestic air or surface transportation, to meet these marking requirements provided all required elements are included.
    7. Except for mailpieces containing button cell batteries installed in equipment (including circuit boards), or no more than 4 lithium-ion cells or 2 lithium-ion batteries installed in the equipment they operate, mailpieces containing lithium-ion batteries must also be accompanied by a document that indicates that the package contains lithium-ion cells or batteries; an indication that the package is to be handled with care and that a flammable hazard exists if the package is damaged; an indication that special procedures must be followed in the event the package is damaged, to include inspection and repacking, if necessary; and a telephone number for additional information.
  2. Installed in Equipment. The following additional restrictions apply to the mailing of lithium-ion cells or batteries properly installed in equipment they operate:
    1. The batteries installed in the equipment must be protected from damage and short circuit.
    2. The equipment must be equipped with an effective means of preventing it from being inadvertently turned on or activated.
    3. The equipment must be cushioned to prevent movement or damage and be contained in a strong enough sealed package to prevent crushing of the package or exposure of the contents during normal handling in the mail. The shipment must be mailed in a strong outer package.
    4. For lithium-ion cells and batteries with a watt-hour rating of not more than 2.7 Wh, no mailpiece may exceed 2.5 kilograms (5.5 pounds). There is no maximum number of cells or batteries per mailpiece.
    5. For lithium-ion cells with a watt-hour rating of not more than 20 Wh, and batteries with a watt-hour rating of not more than 100 Wh, each mailpiece must contain no more than 8 cells or 2 batteries. Each cell must have a watt-hour rating of no more than 20 Wh, and each battery must have a watt-hour of no more than 100 Wh.
    6. Mailpieces are not required to bear markings or labels identifying the contents as lithium batteries, however an applicable DOT-approved lithium battery handling label may optionally be applied to mailpieces in either domestic air or surface transportation.
  3. Mailed With Equipment. The following additional restrictions apply to the mailing of lithium-ion cells or batteries shipped with (but not installed in) the device or equipment being mailed:
    1. For lithium-ion cells and batteries with a watt-hour rating of not more than 2.7 Wh, no mailpiece may exceed 2.5 kilograms (5.5 pounds). There is no maximum number of cells or batteries per mailpiece.
    2. For lithium-ion cells with a watt-hour rating of not more than 20 Wh, and batteries with a watt-hour rating of not more than 100 Wh, each mailpiece must contain no more than 8 cells or 2 batteries. Each cell must have a watt-hour rating of no more than 20 Wh, and each battery must have a watt-hour of no more than 100 Wh.
    3. The lithium-ion cells and batteries must be packaged separately and cushioned to prevent movement or damage.
    4. Mailpieces must be marked and be accompanied by shipping documentation as described in 349.222a6 and 349.222a7.
  4. Mailed Without Equipment. The following additional restrictions apply to the mailing of lithium-ion cells or batteries without equipment (individual batteries):
    1. The lithium-ion cells and batteries must be mailed in “the originally sealed packaging,” and each mailpiece must contain no more than 8 cells or 2 batteries.
    2. The sealed packages of batteries must be separated and cushioned to prevent short circuit, movement, or damage.
    3. The shipment must be contained in a strong enough sealed package to prevent crushing of the package or exposure of the contents during normal handling in the mail.
    4. The outside of the package must be marked on the address side “Package Contains Lithium-ion Batteries (no lithium metal).”
    5. Mailpieces must be marked and accompanied by shipping documentation as described in 349.222a6 and 349.222a7.

Exhibit 349.222 

Domestic Lithium Battery Mailability

 

 

 

Surface Transportation

Air Transportation

Mailpiece Limitations1

Lithium Metal or Lithium Alloy Batteries2, 3

Small, non-rechargeable, consumer-type batteries

Contained in (properly installed in equipment)

Mailable

Mailable

8 cells or 2 batteries
11lbs.

Packed with equipment, but not installed in the equipment

Mailable

Mailable

8 cells or 2 batteries
11lbs.

Without the equipment they operate (individual batteries in originally sealed packaging)

Mailable

Prohibited

5 lbs.

Lithium-ion or Lithium Polymer Batteries4, 5

Small, rechargeable, consumer-type batteries

Contained in (properly installed in equipment)

Mailable

Mailable

8 cells or 2 batteries

Packed with equipment, but not installed in the equipment

Mailable

Mailable

8 cells or 2 batteries

Without the equipment they operate (individual batteries in originally sealed packaging)

Mailable

Mailable

8 cells or 2 batteries

Very Small Lithium Metal or Lithium-ion Batteries6, 7

Exception for very small consumer-type batteries in USPS air transportation

Contained in (properly installed in equipment)

Mailable

Mailable

No limit on cells/batteries
5.5 pounds

Packed with equipment, but not installed in the equipment

Mailable

Mailable

No limit on cells/batteries
5.5 pounds

Damaged/Recalled Batteries

Prohibited, unless approved by the manager, Product Classification.

1. When a mailpiece limitation of 8 cells or 2 batteries is applicable, a mailpiece may contain either 8 cells or 2 batteries, not both.

2. Each cell must not contain more than 1g lithium content.

3. Each battery must not contain more than 2g aggregate lithium content.

4. Each cell must not exceed more than 20 Wh (watt-hour rating).

5. Each battery must not exceed 100 Wh.

6. Each lithium metal or lithium alloy cell or battery must not exceed 0.3 gram of lithium content.

7. Each lithium-ion or lithium polymer cell or battery must not exceed 2.7 Wh.

349.23 Dry Ice
349.231 General

Dry ice is primarily used to keep other items cool. The items being cooled can be either mailable hazardous materials or nonhazardous items, such as medical specimens or foods.

349.232 Characteristics and Precautions

Dry ice (carbon dioxide solid) is produced by expanding liquid carbon dioxide to vapor and compacting the material into blocks. When dry ice converts (dissipates) to a gaseous form, it takes in heat from its surroundings. The resulting gas is heavier than air and can cause suffocation in confined areas as air is displaced. When dry ice is enclosed in a thick metal or other restrictive type of container, internal pressure builds up and could cause the container to rupture or explode. Mailpieces containing dry ice must be handled with care because its very low temperature (about –110° F
or –79° C) can cause severe burns to skin upon direct contact.

349.233 Dry Ice Mailability

Dry ice is permitted to be mailed when it is used as a refrigerant to cool the content of a mailable hazardous or nonhazardous material. Packages containing dry ice must be packed in containers that permit the release of carbon dioxide gas and conform to 49 CFR 173.217 and 175.10(a)(10). Mailpieces containing dry ice are subject to the following conditions, as applicable:

  1. International Mail. Dry ice is prohibited.
  2. Domestic Mail via Air Transportation. Dry ice is permitted in quantities of up to 5 pounds per mailpiece. Mailpieces containing dry ice are subject to the conditions for Packaging Instruction 9A in Appendix C, as applicable.
  3. Domestic Mail via Surface Transportation. A mailpiece sent via surface transportation may contain more than 5 pounds of dry ice. Mailpiece preparation is subject to the conditions for Packaging Instruction 9A in Appendix C.
  4. Note: A mailpiece that is prepared for surface transportation must not, under any circumstances, be routed via air transportation.

349.24 Magnetized Materials

A magnetized material is not classified within any of the nine hazard classes. Such material is regulated as a hazardous material only if offered for carriage on air transportation and when it has a magnetic field strength capable of causing the deviation of aircraft instruments.

349.241 Definition

A magnetized material is any article that has a magnetic field strength capable of causing the deviation of aircraft instruments. A magnetized material is regulated as a hazardous material when it is presented for air transportation and has a measurable magnetic field strength greater than 0.00525 gauss at 15 feet. Magnetized materials include magnets and magnetized devices such as magnetrons and light meters of sufficient strength to possibly cause erroneous aircraft compass readings. If the maximum field strength observed at a distance of 7 feet is less than
0.002 gauss or there is no significant compass deflection (less than
0.5 degree), the article is not restricted as a magnetized material.

349.242 Mailability

Magnetized materials that have a magnetic field strength of 0.002 gauss or more at a distance of 7 feet from any point on the surface of the outer packaging are mailable via air transportation if properly packaged. Magnetized materials that have a field strength greater than 0.00525 gauss at 15 feet are nonmailable under any conditions. The following requirements also apply:

  1. International Mail. Only non-regulated magnetized materials that have a magnetic field strength less than 0.002 gauss at a distance of 7 feet may be sent internationally. Magnetized materials which are regulated are prohibited. See 622.4 or IMM 136.1.
  2. Domestic Mail via Air Transportation. Magnetized materials that have a magnetic field strength greater than 0.00525 gauss at 15 feet are prohibited. A magnetic field strength less than 0.002 gauss at a distance of 7 feet is not regulated. Mailpiece preparation is subject to the conditions in Packaging Instruction 9B in Appendix C. The address side of the outer packaging must bear the magnetized material warning label shown in Exhibit 349.242b and a shipping paper is required, if regulated.
  3. Domestic Mail via Surface Transportation. Magnetized material is not regulated as a hazardous material when transported via surface transportation.

Exhibit 349.242b

Warning Label for Magnetized Materials

Exhibit 349.242b, Warning Label for Magnetized Materials

349.3 Packaging

For mailable Class 9 materials, the following packaging requirements as detailed in the Packaging Instructions in Appendix C apply:

  1. Packaging Instruction 9A must be followed for mailable quantities of dry ice.
  2. Packaging Instruction 9B must be followed for mailable types of magnetized materials.
  3. Packaging Instruction 9C must be followed for Class 9 miscellaneous hazardous materials that can qualify as a mailable air-eligible consumer commodity material (ID8000) when intended for air transportation, or an ORM-D material when intended for ground transportation.
  4. Packaging Instruction 9D must be followed for lithium and lithium-ion cells and batteries.

349.4 Marking and Documentation

Parcels containing mailable Class 9 material must be marked as follows:

  1. For air transportation, a mailpiece Class 9 material must bear the DOT square-on-point marking. The top and bottom portions of the square-on-point and the border forming the square-on-point must be black, and the center must be white or of a suitable contrasting background. The symbol “Y” must be black, located in the center of the square-on-point, and clearly visible. Mailpieces intended for transport by air and containing eligible limited quantity material of DOT Classes 2, 3, and 6.1, or eligible hazard Class 9 limited quantity material categorized in UN3077, UN3082, UN3175, UN3334, or UN3335, must be marked with the proper shipping name “Consumer Commodity” and identification number “ID8000.” Each mailpiece must also display an approved DOT Class 9 hazardous material warning label (see Exhibit 325.2b). A shipper’s declaration for dangerous goods that is prepared in triplicate must be affixed to the outside of the mailpiece.
  2. For surface transportation, parcels containing mailable Class 9 materials must be plainly and durably marked on the address side with “Surface Only” or “Surface Mail Only” and “ORM-D,” immediately following or below the proper shipping name (e.g., Consumer Commodity). Optionally, mailpieces may be marked with an approved DOT limited quantity square-on-point marking (see Exhibit 325.2a). The top and bottom portions of the square-on-point and the border forming the square-on-point must be black, and the center must be white or of a suitable contrasting background. Surface shipments containing qualifying ORM-D material bearing the square-on-point limited quantity marking are not required to be marked with the shipping name and identification number.
  3. When the DOT square-on-point markings are used, markings must be durable, legible, and readily visible, and must be applied on at least one side or one end of the outer packaging. The border forming the square-on-point must be at least 2 mm in width, and the minimum dimension of each side must be 100 mm, unless the package size requires a reduced size marking of no less than 50 mm on each side.
  4. The specific marking and documentation requirements for dry ice, magnetized materials, and lithium batteries are specified in Packaging Instruction 9A, Packaging Instruction 9B, and Packaging Instruction 9D in Appendix C, as applicable.